Between andthe profession engaged in a "long and tortuous struggle" for the right to serve as physicians and surgeons in the U. On May 3, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara authorized the acceptance of osteopathic physicians into all the medical military services on the same basis as MDs. The first osteopathic physician to take the oath of office to serve as a military physician was Harry J. Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons of California v.
The triggering of the addicted behavior seen in these two diseases relies on the action of do- pamine. Moreover, both drug reinforcement and behavioral reward induce neurological changes in specific re- gions of the brain, including the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex.
However, drug addiction affects more indi- viduals and causes more devastating consequences than behavioral addiction, and will therefore be the focus of this review paper.
D rug addiction is a complex disease, and more work need to be done to help us better under- stand its neurobiological mechanisms. Animal models of addiction play a critical role in this area of research, and will be discussed in more details in the following paragraph. Animal Models of Addiction Much of the recent progress in understanding the biology and pathophysiology of addiction has been derived from the study of animal models of addiction .
Several models have been developed in order to mimic the different stages of human addiction, which are the following: An animal model of drug abuse is often used for the purpose of studying a specific biological phenomenon in humans, or to test the efficiency of potential pharmacological treatments for addiction.
The primary stage of addiction is characterized by a binge or intoxication due to the reinforcing effects of drugs, such as opiates, psychostimulants and alcohol. This change in reward can be measured by direct self-stimulation. Sever al s tu d ies in rodents have used intravenous drug self-administration to understand how add ictive drugs could alter motiva- tional behavior .
In these studies, the animal is implanted with intravenous catheters and is placed in a cage with a lever. When the animal presses the lever, this automatically delivers an intravenous infusion of drugs, like cocaine and heroin. It wa s shown that self-administration of cocaine in rodents produces a characteristic pattern of addictive behavior: This animal model of intravenous drug self-administration will definitively help us predict the abuse po- tential of drugs, and their effects on motivation and behavioral actions.
When an individual stops taking a drug after continuous and excessive use, symptoms of withdrawal effects takes place, which often drives the individual to continue seeking the drug .
Symptoms of drug withdrawal typically include a general state of anxiety, and a feeling of emotional unhappiness. The first approach in study- ing the symptoms of withdrawal in an animal model is the drug discrimination methodology, which can be used to identify specific and nonspecific aspects of withdrawal  .
In this experiment, subjects are trained to distinguish administration of a particular drug from the vehicule, usually saline. Either vehicle or a dose of drug is injected prior to tr aining, and subjects are allowed to respond while the drug is producing its effect.
The an i- mal is put in a cage with two levers and can decide which one to selectively press and activate: When the dose of drug is administered, the animal presses on the drug-designated lever to produce reinforcement. In this way, the presence or absence of the drug differentially controls responding, and helps characterize the anxi- ogenic component of the withdrawal syndrome.
Another strategy lies in the studying of animal models of an- xiety to understand the effects of drug withdrawal. This model is a powerful tool for studying addiction since withdrawal from many drugs generates anxiety and stress . Several scientists have studied the behavioral measures of anxiety during drug and alcohol withdrawal in order to elucidate the mechanisms and biological manifestations that take place  .
In summary, the animal models discussed above can efficiently validate some of the key characteristics of ad- diction, and will definitively help scientists target homologous genes or biological mechanisms found in humans that could render a person more susceptible to drug addiction.
Other models not d iscussed earlier are also exten- sively used to study drug dependence. For instance, a genetic animal model has been developed to study alcohol related disorders , and it has been shown that these genetically modified animals are able to drink more amount of alcohol compared to the normal strain, which enable them to attain physical dependence .
Much remains to be explored about the efficiency of animal models of addiction. A better understanding of the changes that take place in the central nervous system of these models will provide insights into the reinforcing effect of drug addiction, which might be useful for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Brain imaging Technology Brain imaging studies have provided enough evidence that neurological changes in specific circuits and struc- M. Physicians are now able to rely on several techniques that can help them visualize the structure and activity of the brain, which is crucial for a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of drug use and addiction.
Positron emission tomography PET imaging is a technique used in functional human brain to detect regional changes in cerebral blood flow as well as alterations in glucose metabolism.
The mapping of glucose utilization can identify which brain areas become more active following drug administration, and determine the brain structures that are interrelated. PET is also used to measure the gamma rays emitted by a radiotracer labeled with positron-emitting isotopes that bind to specific receptors  .
Radiola beled ligands for dopamine, serotonin, and nicotinic acetylcholine re- ceptors are available for PET imaging, and have helped scientists better visualize the neuroreceptors in the con- text of psychiatric disorders such as addiction and drug abuse .
PET imaging studies hav e shown that dopa- mine receptors are up-regulated in psychostimulant and nicotine users , and that administration of cocaine inhibits the reuptake of dopamine, leading to an increase in its extracellular level.
Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is another imaging technique commonly used to visualize the brain of addicted individuals.
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By providing information about the size, shape and anatomy of brain structures, structural MRI can examine the effects that addictive drugs have on the central nervous system . It is a noninvasive technique that allows the study of the chemical composition and biochemistry of the central nervous system, and has been proven to be efficient in the detection of neurological changes that occurs during addiction.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society explores the social and policy sides of the pharmaceutical industry and its pervasive influence in society.
While many technical STM works explore the chemistry and biology of pharmacology and an equally large number of clinically oriented works focus on use of illegal drugs, substance abuse, and treatment, there is virtually nothing on the.
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This feature length documentary about medical madness, cloaked in bioterrorism preparedness, will awaken the brain dead.
It exposes health officials, directed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), for conducting a "War of Terror” that is killing millions of unwitting Americans. Background and aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented. From the beginnings of the civilization in the late fourth millennium BC until the Persian invasion of BC, Egyptian medical practice went largely unchanged but was highly advanced for its time, including simple non-invasive surgery, setting of bones, dentistry, and an extensive set of pharmacopoeia.